NB: For other Mozarabic writings:
. The Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle
. The Mozarabic Chronicle
. Correspondence between Álvaro of Córdoba and Speraindeo (/Speraindeus)
. Eulogius' Defence of the Martyrs of Córdoba
The life of St. Eulogius, written by his close friend Álvaro of Córdoba, serves as a useful introduction to the life and career of Eulogius as well as an important companion to Eulogius' surviving works. We can divide this biography of Eulogius into three main sections. The first section concerns his life and works until his election as bishop of Toledo, which he was apparently unable to accept (the narrative is not wholly clear as to the reason, but it may have been due to opposition from the Muslim authorities). The second section concerns his actual martyrdom along with the woman Leocritia, who was born a Muslim but converted to Christianity, ran away from her family after pretending to revert to Islam and sought refuge with Eulogius. Eulogius was brought before the authorities, who demanded to know why he had given refuge to Leocritia. Eulogius explained that it was his duty to teach the faith to the one who wished to learn it. He also denounced Islam, and so he was executed. The third section is an extended prayer by Álvaro for the intercession of Eulogius.
As with Eulogius' writings in defence of the martyrs, this work serves as a useful source on the diversity of Christian perspectives on life under the rule of the Muslim authorities. The evidence from these works suggests that the martyrs movement in Córdoba and its supporters like Eulogius probably represented a vocal minority of opinion among the general Christian population and the clergy in Córdoba. For example, note how Álvaro contrasts the stance of most of the clergy of Córdoba with Eulogius' unwavering resolve. Also of interest in this work is Eulogius' conflict with Reccafredus, the bishop of Seville who cooperated with the Muslim authorities. However, these points should not lead to idealisation of the life of the Christian's dhimmi status under the Muslim authorities.
The work contains some familiar motifs from hagiographical work, such as the notion that Eulogius' martyrdom was the result of divine predestination, and wonders associated with the martyr's body.
I dedicate this work to my friend Aaron Zelin. As I read Álvaro's account of how Eulogius brought back various Latin works from northern Spain to share in common with interested inquirers, I could not help being reminded of Aaron's tireless efforts to share jihadist primary source material with fellow researchers via his monstrous website Jihadology. We have also seen this commendable approach in his new book on Tunisian jihadism that is worth buying, as Aaron has sought to share access to his source material for that book on a separate website. Indeed, Aaron, Eulogius' desire to share knowledge and resources with his peers lives in you. I must also say that my feelings of friendship towards you and admiration for your abilities are similar to the friendship and admiration that Álvaro felt for his friend Eulogius.
Below is the work translated in full. I have mostly preserved the original transcriptions and transliterations of names for the sake of authenticity. As for the style of the Latin, see my previous comments on Álvaro's letter to Speraindeus. I have also included some explanatory notes for context. Any suggestions for corrections and/or amendments to the translation are most welcome.
The life and suffering of the most blessed martyr Eulogius the presbyter, who died in era 897[i] (859 AD) under king Abderecman[ii] on the fifth day before the Ides of March.[iii]
While arranging the suffering of the most blessed martyr and teacher Eulogius I decided to write his life laid out in order before noting the most beautiful struggle of his end, so that it may become known before the readers who and how great he was and thus then it may become clear that he obtained the palm of victory by merit through the most evident signs.
In the beginning of this work, relying on the help of our Lord and Saviour, I profess that I reveal things that are not heard and dubious, but seen and proven by me, because, with the help of God's grace, entwined as we were from the first flower of adolescence in the one bond of concordance through the sweetness of kindness and love of the scriptures, we led the yoke of this life in all issues. Even if that was not in equal rank, it was nonetheless in equal affection.
But that man, ordained with the gift of priesthood, flew more highly carried by the wings of the powers in the sublime, while I, worn out with luxury and the mud of pleasure, am suddenly dragged by the earth to this point. And from there it is that I have arranged to narrate things not uncertain and discovered by the narration of any old men, but things waged with me and known through me, because as I profess that it will be dangerous to report an opinion rashly about uncertain things, so I do not think it is devoid of dangers to suppress those things which ought to be known about well-established matters.
Also the truth that should be preached to all for example is laudable, while in no less measure the false composition of the rhetoricians ought to be detested. It is better to say nothing about many notorious crimes, than to disseminate many things falsely from small good things, and it is safer to pass over all things that have been done rather than to fabricate a few things that have not been. And the one who suppresses things not through malevolent intent, but rather by contempt of sluggishness errs more mildly than the one who fabricates false things in a detailed manner.
For the truth, if it is said with the zeal for truth and not in the boasting of vain glory, it imparts a crown to the one who says it. But if falsity is intended by anyone, it kills the one who conjectures it. And as I rejoice that I should be rewarded in saying the truth, so I do not deny that I am to be condemned if I say falsity. So for these reasons I myself have had no reason to spring to divulge falsehood, when I have learnt to reward the truth in all things, not mendacity.
Therefore the blessed martyr Eulogius, begotten of noble stock, born from a line of patrician senators of the city of Córdoba, endowed with the ministry of the church, devoted to the monastery of the most blessed Saint Zoylus[iv] and leading a life of the clerics in the college of the same man, flourished with many most distinguished virtues, and was vibrant with many commendable works.
For devoted to church literature from the cradle itself and growing every day through studies of good works he obtained perfection, and outstanding in the knowledge of doctrine over all his contemporaries and flourishing with the light of erudition he became the teacher of the masters, for having an old mind in a very small bind he overcame all certainly in knowledge even if not in age.
So he was the most devoted examiner of the scriptures and the most eager investigator of opinions, such that he gave nothing precedence over the sacred scripture, and chose nothing more than to meditate on the law of the Lord day and night.[v] And though not scorning the magisterium of his teachers, if he heard any others, he sought them even if they were placed far away, and lest he should offend his own masters he would secretly withdraw himself at the hours when he could. But he also frequently visited the abbot of good memory Speraindeus,[vi] a praiseworthy man of renown in the prolific output on doctrine. And with customary hearing he hung to the most skilled mouth of that man, who at that very time was sweetening the territory of all Baetica[vii] with the streams of his prudence.
That is where I first merited to see him, there I clung to his sweet friendship, there I was bound to him with individual sweetness. For I was already of the listeners to that aforementioned most illustrious man, and while I was rather frequently rubbing away at his thresholds and sharpening my uncultivated character, I was finally bound with the companionship of this such great man through divine regard and I was not merely joined in chains through an unapproachable bond, but united.
And we became listening men, true inquisitors, lovers of one another, such that that age took up untaught things not granted to it. We both made delightful sport of scriptures and not knowing how to control a thole-pin in the lake we were entrusted to the din of the Pontic sea.[viii] For not in a hateful manner, but in a delightful manner in turn we made puerile debates in the form of letters about doctrines by which we were divided, and in rhythmic verses we flattered ourselves. And this was an exercise for us sweeter than honey, more delightful than honeycombs. And previously immature youthful inner freedom drove us as we exerted every day to try many things unapproachable from writings, such that we composed volumes which afterwards mature age decreed had to be purged so as not to remain for posterity.
But as he touched on the years of young adulthood, he performed the ministry of the deacon and soon enough he was carried in merit to the upper echelons and was endowed with the grade of presbyter, and soon he was bound in rank to the masters and in customs to the life. His love of all showed what great humility, goodness and kindness had clung to him.
From here he began to bind himself with stricter austerity of life and adorn himself with the laws of modesty in all actions, to free himself up for the divine scriptures and to punish his body with vigils and fasts, to frequent the monasteries and visit the monasteries, to set in order the rules of the brothers, to care for all things from here and there in that manner by which, if it was possible, he might be present on both sides, dealing with his own priestly office in such a way that he did not let go of the rule-based order of the other, adhering in such a way to the monks that he was commendable to the clergy, thus living among the clergy that he was seen as a monk, running suitably in both parts and as one man most sufficiently satisfying the professions of both sides.
He went rather often to the most consecrated congregations of the monasteries, but lest he should be thought to despise his own order, he frequently went back to the clergy. While he persisted for some time among them, he would seek the monasteries again lest the virtue of the mind be weakened by secular cares. Here at times he adorned the church with doctrine of mouth, there he made right his own life through exculpation. Placed in such great virtues, he trod on the path of this life grieving and in anxiety, and desiring everyday to fly to the heavens he was weighed by the corporeal baggage, to such an extent that he was making arrangements to go to Rome and subdue the marks of adolescence with tears and the pilgrimage journey, and indeed wipe away those that had already been tamed But behold all of from here and there insisted and we retained him more in body than in mind.
Indeed while those things and others were occurring, at last the bishop Recchafredus[ix] violently leapt upon the churches and clerics like a whirlwind and bound in prison chains all the priests he could. Among these people he was led as a chosen ram and he was bound with his pontifex[x] and the other priests. In this imprisonment he gave effort more to speeches and readings rather than the bonding.
Then with the arrest of the virgin saints Flora and Maria[xi] for their faith, he composed that Documentum Martiriale[xii] in one book in which he strengthened them for martyrdom through the strongest bonds and taught them to despise death through himself with words and through letters, and he committed himself and his associates to be released from the bond through their help, something which he also soon managed to obtain after the sixth day of their passion. For they fulfilled their martyrdom on the eighth day before the Kalends of December,[xiii] while indeed the priests of the Lord obtained release on the third day before the same Kalends.[xiv] In addition to this there is a letter directed to me in these days with rather brilliant touch, touching on the suffering of the same virgins and the breaking free of the priests by the merits of the same virgins.
Then he taught most perfectly the metrical feet which the learned men of Hispania still did not know, and he demonstrated them to us after he got out. Then also he directed a letter dictated in the eloquent style of locution to me regarding those books I had given in defence of the martyrs. For while all the priests who were with him were free for leisure and rest, that man did not cease from reading, whether in nights or days. He increased this activity during the nights and days, licking the honey of the scriptures with his mouth and chewing on them spiritually with his heart.
Indeed I think it worthwhile if we touch more deeply on the time of persecution and illustrate what sort of commendable man he was. Indeed while the bishops, priests, clergy and wise men of Córdoba fell on a deviant path about the martyrdom that recently rose and driven by fear almost denied the faith of Christ (if not in words, nonetheless in nodding), this man however never seemed to vacillate to feeble whisper, but rather meeting all going to the struggle, strengthening the minds of all and venerating and putting together the bones of all, he burned with the ardour of martyrdom so much that he himself was seen to be the inciter of martyr in those very days.
For this zeal of rectitude he was driven by many insults and worn out by great harassment. For one of the notables was rebuking him and exasperating him with threats. Having been turned to base sense through just divine judgement, that person soon in his misery and stupidity lost the faith which he held and unknowingly assailed.
The aforementioned most blessed person discussed this matter more fully in the third book Memoriale Sanctorum.[xv] In these books he both individually explained the sufferings of the martyrs with clear source of locution and with sufficient performance laid out for the generations to follow the things that were done and said against the martyrs of God. But his small works lay forth with clearer light what a great man he was and how excellent his knowledge was. He composed them with Attic salt and prosaic charm, indeed with divine inspiration.
But one must return to the times of the bishop Reccafredus, and by what skill he suspended himself in deferment from the sacrifice, lest he should glue himself to his error. For in those very days all were bound by both force and power and as they were subdued by the royal order they seemed to be bound to an unjust enemy. And those who in a prior insurrection had stood adverse and upright against him, then cut down by terror clung to him as though they were of the same family. But they did not do so in mind, but in body, and not in love of heart, but by compulsion of terror and so that he should not be given an approach to cause further harm.
Also the anger of the king raging against us had brought in compulsion by laws and as it had put in place arbitrary decision it had subjugated all to a brute enemy. There will be more elaborate discussion of the truth of this matter in another work.
For now though we only wish to elaborate on the most holy skill of this admirable man. With heavy drive of pain, while he saw that the deceitful character of the bishop was loitering everywhere around him and he recognised the rest of those sharing in that with him and saw that he had no ability to resist and did not see that the ability to draw near was remaining for him as is the case when sureties are given, he began to wear himself out with heavy wailing and to be softened within through great pain, as we have said.
But by the nod of God it happened that one day there was read to the present bishop a letter that had been directed by the blessed Epihanius the bishop of Salamis in Cyprus to the Jerusalemite bishop Ihoannes. I had ordered for a certain deacon to read it. In this letter the most blessed pontifex refuted the silliness of Origen and defended the ordination of a certain presbyter consecrated by himself in the assigned monastery of the aforementioned Jerusalemite. He revealed the cause of the ordination and praised the refraining from sacrifice[xvi] by the most blessed presbyters Iheronirnus[xvii] and Vincentus.[xviii]
Then the aforementioned Eulogius, seizing on this narration with eager mind rather than undertaking it, and recognising the opportunity granted to him by God, as though struck with a huge wound, drawing breaths from his inner heart and looking at me said against the bishop: 'If the oil lamps of the church and columns of our faith did this, what does it suit us to do, when we are weighed down and afflicted by the burden of defect? Therefore let your paternity acknowledge that the license of sacrifice has been forbidden to me by myself.'
And thus with character of this sort in the time of Reccafredus he bound himself to his own decision. While he took up the rank of his profession in this way, nonetheless after performing the delightful function, he did not want afterwards to take back the rejected status. But his own pontifex compelled him to go back to the received duty of sacrifice in such a way that the former did not fear to cast him with anathema, unless he promised to return rather quickly.
And that man was in all professions principally and not medially honoured, serving all on horse, and while he preceded all in knowledge, he seemed to be rather humble indeed, even to the lowest, clear in face and outstanding in honour, glittering in eloquence and luminous in the efforts of life, the inciter of martyrs as well as the praising person, a very skilled handler and dictator of words.
Who could express with whatever river of prudence the zeal of ingenuity, who could express the rightness of eloquence, who could express the glittering of knowledge, who could express the usual affability of duty? For what volumes were not laid open to that man, which could conceal from him the ingenuities of the Catholic, heretic and even heathen philosophers? Where were the metrical books, where the prosaic ones, where the historical ones that escaped his investigation? Where are the verses whose songs that man did not know, where the hymns and foreign small works that his most beautiful eye did not peruse? For everyday digging out new and outstandingly admirable things as though from acres and ditches, he uncovered unseen treasures.
No wise man could comprehend what great aptness in learning had attached to his soul adorned with such precious gift, what great unexhausted care of skill. And o admirable sweetness of mind! Never wanting to know something in a mere private capacity, he displayed to us all things, correcting faults, consolidating things that were broken, restoring unfamiliar things, restoring prior status to old things, reviving neglected things and he bustled about to accomplish by his efforts whatever deeds of old men he could fulfil: the same one man exhibited on a multiplied level the severity of Iheronimus,[xix] the modesty of Agustinus,[xx] the gentleness of Ambrosius,[xxi] and the patience of Gregorius in correcting errors, in grasping smaller ones, in softening down greater ones, in bearing horrors.
And it did not suffice to visit the monasteries of his homeland. Indeed rather because of his brothers who were in exile in those very days in the territory of Francia, he seized the way and proceeding beyond into the territories of Pamplona[xxii] he entered the monastery of Saint Zaccaria and visiting the monasteries of others of those same regions with glistening vow, he was adorned with the friendship of many fathers, whose conversation he expounded by name and location in the letter which he gave to the bishop of Pamplona when he was placed in prison. In these places, finding many volumes of books, returning here to things hidden and almost removed from many, he placed them for us in his most sanctified chest.
There he enjoyed the parlay of the blessed Odoarius, for whom 150 regular monks served as soldiers. From there he brought back with himself the book Civitas by the most blessed Agustinus,[xxiii] the Eneid of Vergilius,[xxiv] as well as the metrical books of Iubenalis,[xxv] the abundant poems of Flaccus,[xxvi] the painted small works of Porfirius,[xxvii] the works of epigrams of Adhelelmus,[xxviii] as well as those of the metrical Fabula of Abienus[xxix] and the outstanding songs of the Catholic hymns, along with the collection of many ingenuities of the most minute causes concerning sacred questions. He brought these things back not in a private capacity for himself, but in common for the most eager inquirers. He displayed the gleam of the effort and the glitter of ingenuity through shining paths for all who were present at hand and specific signs for those who usually follow, while drawing out things with luminous footsteps. He entered everywhere lucid and returned from everywhere gleaming. Pure and sweet, thus did the crowned servant of Christ as sweet as nectar shine forth to all.
And I think this work should not omit the fact that following the divine memory of Uvistremirus[xxx] the bishop of the seat of Toletum he was elected into the same seat by all the fellow provincial and neighbouring bishops and he was considered worthy, and approved by the relation of all. But the divine disposition, which kept him for itself in the cause of martyrdom, stood in the way with some barriers. And while the very same popular election was proclaiming to consecrate him for itself in the bishopric, they were impeded by the adversity of the opposing matters, so they forbade to elect another for themselves while that man was alive.
Although he was craftily barred from the order, he was not however deprived of the gift of the same order, as he obtained the heavenly bishopric when he was joined to Christ through the glory of martyrdom. For all saints are bishops, but not all bishops are saints. Indeed as he found sanctity through the outpouring of blood, performs the order of the bishopric, while all in the heaven he is remunerated with the eternal promises.
And while he was marked by these virtues and dogmas and was shining forth far higher than all like a lamp placed over a candlestick, and like a city placed on the top of a mountain, and while he was providing new and old things from the treasure of his Lord for all the families as a learned scribe, he resided first among the priests, above all among the confessors, and not last among the judges. At last composed of vow and affected by the divine clemency aiding him, he was carried by unexpected judgement but deliberative zeal to the heavens above, and he merited to obtain through works of sanctity those things which he had demanded from the martyrs with poured out tears and had customarily sprinkled through all his small works. The one who will have bothered to read those outstanding works of his will be able to know this more truly.
And since it is worthwhile and has seemed worthy for us to explain in brief form his passion for the benefit of the readers and for the annual recurrence of his feast day, thus in this separate section, we have introduced purely and sincerely the most fine end of his struggle. From here is the suffering of the same man.
Therefore in the time in which the savage domination of the Arabs, through shrewd cunning, was devastating all the territory of poor Hispania, as king Mohomad[xxxi] through incredible madness and unbridled opinion was considering to destroy utterly the Christian people, most- afraid because of the terror of the most bloodthirsty king and striving to modify his madness- tried to attack the flock of Christ through the harsh duty of his unjust will in various and sought out reasons.
Most committed themselves to the abyss in denying Christ: some were moved after being agitated by harsh torments, but others were confirmed and established with flourishing virtue. In their time, as we have said, the martyrdom of the faithful shone forth in splendour, while the error of those denying was tossed hither and thither.
For several who retained the faith of Christ at least in their minds, luminously and openly brought forth by the instinct of God what they had hidden, jumped forth to martyrdom as no one searched, and seized for themselves the crown from the torturers.
Among themselves also was the blessed Christoforus, an Arab by descent. We intend to explain the order of his passion in another place. But also from the number of these people were the blessed Aurelius and the saint Felix, who went forth with their wives to the glory of the passion after many well-disposed hiding places. Also from these people was the blessed virgin Flora, flourishing in virtues. Despising the perishable pomp of this world, she merited the eternal crown without end. Of these people this most holy teacher of ours expounded individually their struggles and explained in shining words their acts and lives.
In this time there was a certain girl called Leocritia. She was noble by birth, rather new in mind, born from the sediment of the heathens,[xxxii] and brought forth from the offspring of the wolves. Some time ago she became tinged with the waters of salvation through a certain relative of hers dedicated to Christ called Litiosa. And she shone forth having secretly put on the faith of Christ, and sprinkled the odour of her news as sweet as nectar to all.
For when she used to rush to the aforementioned religious girl in the years of infancy on account of the relationship, and was everyday addressing her with whatever conversations she could, finally with heavenly regard she took up the faith of Christ in her mind, and preserved the faith she had undertaken in her breast through the ardour of love. When she came to the years of wisdom, and felt the lights of knowledge, she fed that faith as it grew more and was augmented everyday with spiritual nourishments: the faith which she had learnt secretly with the most tender institutes. At first she did this secretly, then publicly and openly. Her parents persistently tried to persuade her but were accomplishing nothing at all, so they tried to attack her with whippings and beatings, so that they might at least coerce through terrors the one they could not move through sweet talk.
But that fire, which Christ has sent into the hearts of the faithful, has known to yield to no threats. While she was being flogged for days and nights in this conflict, and saw herself being attacked with the most vicious acts of vengeance and shackled by hard bonds, fearing that she would burn with the branding-iron of perfidy without the faith divulged publicly, she made her cause known through intermediaries to the most blessed Eulogius, already a man most renowned for many such works, and his sister Anulo a virgin dedicated to God, and she explained that she wanted to go to safer places of the faithful in which she could divulge her faith without fear.
Forthwith the blessed Eulogius recognised the accustomed duty, and he was as the most active supporter of the martyrs, he ordered her via the same intermediaries to go out secretly. She hastily devised an artifice and acted as though she agreed with her parents, and attacked our faith with words and deliberately put on all the rejected ornaments, showing herself in their likeness as though she intended to please and get married. Thus she strove to sway their minds and adorn her steps that were hateful to her. And when she saw that all things were now safe for her, she gave the impression she was proceeding ornately to the nuptials of some of her relatives, which were being done in those days. This was consistent with the same duty.[xxxiii] She then brought herself through quick flight to the most blessed Eulogius and his sister Anulo in order to be protected. Soon afterwards they received her with welcome mind and handed her over to the most trusted friends in order to be hidden.
But when her father and mother did not see their daughter as they waited for her, they groaned that they had been deceived. Tormenting themselves with unheard madness and hateful grief, they disturbed everything, and tarnished all things. Running through the unknown and known people, by the power and order of the governor they burdened with imprisonment and bonds whomsoever they thought had to be attacked. They afflicted with whips and imprisonment men, women, confessors, priests, pious women, and those they could afflict, in the hope they could recover their daughter through these things and more.
Indeed that saint, unmoved, changed her various locations for her and took every care to ensure the sheep would not be handed over into the hands of the wolves. Nonetheless as she pressed on with her fastings and vigils, and covered her limbs with a blanket and lay down on the dust, she became severely emaciated in the limbs of her body. But also the most blessed man Eulogius- the one to be named with reverence- sought out nightly vigils and spent sleepless nights praying in prostration on the ground in the basilica of Saint Zoylus, praying for the help of god and fortitude for the virgin and always consecrating these exercises to the Lord.
Meanwhile, the most serene virgin wanted to see the sister of the blessed Eulogius, whom she loved with ardent desire, and came to their dwelling places by night, spurred by the revelation of the Lord, and driven by the desire of consolation, that she should spend at least one day with them, and return again to the usual hiding places. And she reported to them that her mouth was filled with the liquid of honey on several occasions as she was praying. She added that she did not spit it out with rash venture, but swallowed it, admiring the form of the thick element. The saint explained to her that this was a portent: the sweetness of the kingdom of heaven that was to be enjoyed.
Indeed while on another day the virgin was making arrangements to go, it came to pass that the companion of the journey came not at the accustomed hour, but rather when dawn was beginning to shine. And she had no means of going out, because she was accustomed to go at night in order to avoid the traps. It was arranged that the virgin of God should remain in the same place that she stayed on the same day, until the Sun should remove the last of its light from the earth, and the nocturnal darkness should indulge the chosen quietness. Indeed she was held back by human counsel, but by divine judgement, so that the diadem of glory should impose its crown on her and the blessed Eulogius. For on that day by the instigation of someone and the traps and betrayal of certain people the location of the hiding place was indicated to the governor, and suddenly all that habitation of theirs was surrounded by soldiers sent to this place.
And it turned out that the elected and predestined martyr had been present at hand, in whose presence they led forth the aforementioned virgin and arrested him together as well. Striking them and afflicting them with many insults, they presented them to the unjust ruler and the wicked judge.
Soon afterwards the judge considered to have him killed through the whips, and inflamed with violent look, impatient mind and vehement fury, he interrogated him with furious words and asked threateningly why he kept the virgin away from home. He laid out the truth of the matter splendidly in this order in response to him, doing so in a most willing and patient way in the manner of his speech: 'Oh governor, the order of preaching has been enjoined upon us, and this has been suited to our faith, that we should extend the light of faith to those who seek it from us, and we should not deny those things which are holy to anyone rushing along the journeys of life.
This is a duty of the priests, this is demanded by the true religion, and also this was taught to us by our Lord Christ, that whosoever in thirst has wanted to drink of the rivers of faith, he should find the drink in double the amount that he sought.
And in so far as this virgin seemed to seek from us the rule of the holy faith, it was necessary that the more the affection for it burnt, the more gladly our intention should be applied to her, and it was not befitting to reject her as she desired such things, particularly for the one who has been chosen for this by the gift of Christ. So I illustrated and taught in as far as I could and I expounded that the faith of Christ is the way of the kingdom of heaven. So also I would do most gladly for you if you had thought that I was to be asked.'
Then the governor, with disturbed face, ordered for the sticks to be brought in, threatening to kill him through floggings. The saint said to him: 'What do you desire to exercise through these sticks?' He said: 'I want to educate[xxxiv] your soul through these.' He says: 'Sharpen and compose the sword, through which you may restore my soul, released from the chain of the body, to the One who gave it, for do not imagine you can cut my limbs through the whips.' And soon enough, taunting the falsity of his prophet and religion with clear invective and sufficient eloquence and repeating the word of preaching he was led with all haste to the palace and dragged all the way to the advisors of the king, where one of them known to him on most familiar terms leapt forth in compassion.
He said: 'If the stupid and idiots are carried into this lamentable ruin of death, then I must ask you, endowed as you are with the adornment of wisdom, and refined by the customs of life: what madness has driven you to commit yourself to this deadly mishap, with love of the natural life obliterated? Hear me, I beseech, and I ask you not to rush into a headlong disaster. Say only a word in the hour of this necessity of yours, and afterwards make use of your faith wherever you can. We promise that you will not be sought out anywhere.'
Smiling at him, the most blessed martyr said: 'Oh, if only you had been able to know how great the stored-up things remain for the worshippers of our faith! Or if only I could commit to your breast that which I retain in my breast. Then indeed you would not try to call me back from the proposition, but rather you would consider more gladly to remove me from this worldly honour.' And he began to bring forth to them the words of the eternal gospel and to pour forth with steadfast freedom the preaching of the kingdom. Forthwith they ordered for him to be pierced through with the sword as they did not want to hear him.
And while he was being led, one of the eunuchs of the king struck him on the cheek with an open hand. That man, preparing for him the other side of his face, said: 'I beseech, that you equal the prior blow by striking this again.'[xxxv] As he struck it a second time, that man endured and calmly prepared the first side again.
But by the impetus of the soldiers he was led to the place of execution, where bending his knees in prayer and extending his hand to the skies and fortifying himself completely with the sign of the cross he prayed inside himself with a few words. He then stretched forth his neck to the sword and despising this world he found life through the quick blow. He completed his martyrdom on the fifth day before the Ides of March on Saturday at the ninth hour.[xxxvi]
O what a fortunate and admirable man in our age, who both sent forth the fruit of his work into many, and left himself to be followed in a virgin! Raising with himself by his hands the standard of victory, and dedicating the maniple of his labour to the Lord on his behalf, offering a pure offer, and pacific sacrifices, he represented in himself to Christ the Lord of the world those things, which he had taught others.
Soon indeed when his cadaver was cast from a higher place into the channel of a riverbed, a dove that was white as snow with wondrous brightness- in the sight of all- cutting through the air with its wings, sat with its wings over the body of the martyr. All tried to shoo it away with throwable stones from that place, but nonetheless they were unable to repel it as it stood firm, so they wanted to put it to flight by their hands at close quarters.
But the dove, not flying in a circuit around the body, jumped forth and resided above a tower handing nearby the corpse and turned its face to the corpse of the most blessed man. And one cannot be silent about this miracle, which Christ deployed over the corpse of the martyr to the praise of his name.
So while one inhabitant of the town of Astigitana[xxxvii] was performing through the months the palace service of the mansion among the rest of the men and was performing his course there through wakefulness, he got up in the night as he desired to drink water, and reached the prominent duct of the canal, which is led forth over those places. There he saw priests glowing as white as snow with wondrous brightness and holding glowing lights over his body, and reciting psalms diligently in the manner of those who sing psalms.
Terrified by this vision, he returned to the place of the mansion, fleeing more than heading back, and reporting all things to his companion he wanted to turn back with him again to the police, but he was not able to see that again. The head of the most blessed man was recovered on the next day by the curiosity of the Christians, and indeed gathered the remains of the corpse on the third day and buried it under the shade of the most blessed martyr Zoilus.
Indeed the most blessed virgin Leocritia, mitigated by many delights and driven by many promises, was finally strengthened in the solidity of her faith by the divine gift. She was beheaded on the fourth day[xxxviii] after his martyrdom and was cast into the river Baetis.[xxxix]
But she could not be drowned or hidden in the waters, for proceeding with upright body she displayed a wondrous sight to all, and thus brought out by the Christians she was buried in the basilica of the martyr Saint Genesius, which is located in the place of Terzos. This was the end of the most blessed teacher Eulogius, this admirable death, likewise a passing filled with toil.
Now it remains at the end of this volume to give thanks to the King of all ages, who from the beginning of the faith has adorned His church with martyrs, given power to the weary and led those who presume nothing about themselves to eternal glory. To our very God be glory and power forever and ever, Amen.
And now as we have explained in common language and uncultivated oration the struggle of our teacher and the martyr, it remains that we should turn our address to the same patron who was most friendly to us, as though he were hearing and present for our prayers, and that we should refer our familiarity known to him. Certainly he is capable of hearing those who ask, and of being a patron for the wretched, and the afflicted, if our own merits have helped us, if the harsh crimes have not stood in the way, if the pure affection has demanded this.
Therefore martyr of God on high, the sweet name, Eulogius, heed your Albarus as he clamours, and thereby help the servant to you whom you held fixed to your mind in kindness. I will seek your intercession by the words of no others except your words. Indeed I am the one whom you said was united with you, to whom and for whom you spoke in this manner. Thus you said: 'That Albarus is no different from Eulogius, and nowhere else than within the depths of Albarus has the love of Eulogius been placed.' Oh Christ our Lord, may this love sweet and faithful endure among both of us. May it endure with the perpetual height of sanctity and proceed forth as a shining light and grow all the way to the completed day.
Behold, lord, I have painted your testimony piously through my hands with golden letters and the gem of opinions, but I desire the complement of your patronage. For that which when you were placed on the earth you constantly prayed should prevail, you will be able to obtain in me through the support that has been filled up within you, now that you have been brought across into the heavens.
For true love, as you yourself have said, faithfully preserves kindness for the one absent and displays this for the lover because it has been possible for it to do so. Therefore oh egregious martyr, and most dear friend, while it is allowed, and the time of mercy still overhangs, stretch forth your gift of your intercession for your friend: so that the improvement of customs may be granted here to me, the gifts of the tears may be frequent, the affection of virtues may be brought into the perishable mind, the continual sting of remorse may be affective, the effect of repentance may be pure, the desired place may be granted by right, the opportune approach may be disrupted by no bars, the bonds of all perplexities may be loosened, the endeavours of all impediments may retreat and the obstacles of bonds may be changed into help of the obedient through the exchange of the right hand of the one on high.
May the doors of the heart be opened to undertake the kingdom of God the Most High, may the proud nape be bent, and the necks be subdued to bear the sweetest yoke of Christ. Still I should wish for more things to be demanded, but I fear incurring the mark of temerity. But you, oh servant of god on high, you who are satiated with the face of the Lord and perpetually enjoy His gift, with the worthy interventions enact for the poor one that by which you have known that one thousand crimes are purged.
I also desire the eternal life and thirst for the rest of the kingdom of heaven. Therefore by whatever end or whip ensure that the remedy hangs over the servant and wish to purge the crime with that fire of ardour to which you seemed to have been bound here on earth with us, so that that love may now shine with clearer light, since it both shines with wider light and is able to preserve the things sought through better help.
But I, my sweet Eulogius, have illustrated the memory of your name as far as I have been able, I have explained your life, I have expressed the doctrine and explained the most beautiful struggle, both so that the delightful memory of your name may always flourish in the world and so that mention here should thus glow red with eternal splendour like life in heaven. This is so even if I have not dedicated with the most eloquent words, I have nonetheless done so with the most evident efforts by which I have been able. For I have constructed yesterday the rather enduring monument of your glory. Neither cloudy whirlwind and hailstorm should destroy it, nor should the pure of the flames liquidate it by any fire whatsoever.
I have built a memory to your name from fine gold and all sorts of precious stones, which no most violent tyrant could destroy in the manner of plunder. I have composed the fabric of your summit and have erected on high the tower of your habitation, so that you may be a splendid lighthouse shining for all travellers from here and there. I have adorned the title of your decorum with pearls shining as white as snow with wondrous brightness and shining topaz, so that it may shine to all lands of the earth.
I have sprinkled the holy ashes with nectar flowers that stink in no heat and do not yield when fire is applied. I have anointed the precious corpse with pure precious nard-oil and mixed it with different kinds of incenses, amomum, balsam and musk, so that the most sweet fragrant diffused odour of your sanctity may be warm without end causing restoration through all the ages.
I have fulfilled the bond of friendship and I have not wanted to send away the bare name of your kindness to time, so that as you shine to heaven through your life and effort, so you shine to the world through tongue and name; so that the following generation may find you praised, look on you as someone to be imitated and recognise with our delicate ingenuity how great you were in doctrine.
And the age to follow will not be surprised that on account of the zeal of those who came before you were surrounded with the corporeal benefits, appearances and flowers that are normally consumed by the oldness of times. But it will venerate you decorated as you are with spiritual gifts and made sublime by immortal titles.
You therefore, venerable master, restore the pay to us through making equal amends, so that as your remains are decorated through our servitude and your funeral proceedings are made ornate, then we may be illuminated through fortunate regard and visited by the heavenly gift. Meanwhile I have abandoned my iniquity as I flow like liquid all the way through steep and precipitous things, and remaining melted all the way to this point in my evils I have receded from the face of my God while clinging to a malicious enemy. may it be that through this amends, after I have been illuminated with the grace coming beforehand and have been consummated with the gratuitous mercy by whatever end of life, I may thus merit to possess the undisrupted celestial joys in common with you, just as here weakened in earthly anxiety with equal weeping and wailing I have drawn long-lasting deep sighs, so that even if it has not been given to me to shine with equal glory, at least forgiveness for my crimes should be brought to me. So may I not grieve submerged in an abyss of punishment, but may I rejoice in requiem of heaven after being granted to you and the rest of my masters who are your companions. Amen.
The bringing over of the body of Saint Eulogius the Presbyter[xl]
The body of Saint Eulogius the martyr and teacher was brought over into the basilica of Saint Zoilus with principal title on the Kalends of June era 897.[xli] But his birthday is celebrated on the previously mentioned day,[xlii] whereby every time in the days of the Quadragesimal period[xliii] there occurs the solemnity of that man.
[i] The era is a Spanish system of dating. As can be seen from the AD year in brackets, subtract 38 from the era number to get the equivalent in AD/CE.
[ii] The title is mistaken. It should refer to Muhammad I, amir of Córdoba in the period 852-886 CE.
[iii] i.e. 11th March (in Roman dating, ordinal numbering before the Kalends, Nones, or Ides of a given month includes the day of the occasion. The Ides of March occurred on 15th March.
[iv] A saint from Córdoba, killed during the persecution of Christians under Diocletian in the early fourth century CE.
[v] Cf. Psalm 1:2.
[vi] Aka Speraindeo. His main preserved writing is his letter of response to Álvaro explaining the Trinity doctrine.
[vii] Region of southern Iberia corresponding roughly to the modern delineation of the region of Andalusia.
[viii] The Black Sea.
[ix] Bishop of Seville.
[x] i.e. His direct superior bishop.
[xi] Executed in 851 CE.
[xii] This is among the surviving corpus of Eulogius' works.
[xiii] 24th November.
[xiv] 29th November.
[xv] Composed in three books, the Memoriale Sanctorum is among Eulogius' surviving works.
[xvi] The meaning is the administration of mass.
[xvii] Jerome, most famous for his Latin translation of the Bible (The Vulgate).
[xviii] For some context on this episode, see here.
[xx] St. Augustine.
[xxi] Likely referring to St. Ambrose, archbishop of Milan in the fourth century.
[xxii] Eulogius' time in Pamplona is mentioned in his own work in defence of the martyrs of Córdoba, as he mentions that he found a biography of Muhammad there.
[xxiii] The City of God by St. Augustine.
[xxiv] The Aeneid by the poet Virgil, an epic poem that tells the legend of how the Trojan prince Aeneas founded the Roman people.
[xxv] The poetry of Juvenal, probably best known for his Satires.
[xxvi] Referring to Quintus Horatius Flaccus, better known in English as Horace.
[xxvii] The works of Publilius Optatianus Porfirius.
[xxviii] St. Aldhelm, an Anglo-Saxon bishop and abbot who wrote poetry in Latin.
[xxix] Avianus, who wrote fables.
[xxx] Wistremir, the bishop of Toledo. His name is of Germanic origin.
[xxxi] Muhammad I, amir of Córdoba at the time.
[xxxii] i.e. Muslims.
[xxxiii] i.e. The duty of attending the wedding.
[xxxiv] The Latin verb educere also seems to have the more literal meaning of 'lead forth/draw out' here: i.e. an intention to kill Eulogius through the beating of the sticks.
[xxxv] These remarks recall Jesus' saying about 'turning the other cheek' from his Sermon on the Mount.
[xxxvi] 11th March 895 CE at 3 p.m.
[xxxvii] The town of Écija in Andalusia.
[xxxviii] i.e. 14th March.
[xxxix] The Guadalquivir.
[xl] This note is not in the original biography, but is inserted as an appendix note in Juan Gil's Corpus Scriptorum Muzarabicorum.
[xli] 1st June 859 CE.
[xlii] The sentence refers to his feast day: i.e. 11th March.
[xliii] i.e. During the period of Lent.