Of the Visigothic kings who ruled Spain prior to the Islamic conquest, the reign of King Wamba (672-680 CE) is among those documented in greatest detail through contemporaneous or near contemporaneous historical writing, thanks to an extended narrative account by Julian of Toledo (archbishop of Toledo in the period 680-690 CE) of how Wamba dealt with a revolt early on in his reign (673 CE) in the Visigothic kingdom's holdings in southern Gaul (now southern France)- a region that has been called by various names such as Septimania and Gothic Gaul.
During this revolt, Wamba had sent his general Paulus to put down the revolt, only for Paulus himself to revolt against Wamba and assume the title of king (at least for the Gallic regions). The account of this revolt- put under the title of "The History of King Wamba"- consists of four works: (i) a purported letter from Paulus to Wamba, (ii) Julian's narrative account of the revolt, (iii) an extended rhetorical "insult" (Latin: Insultatio) directed against Gaul for the harbouring and nurturing the revolt, and (iv) the "judgement" (Latin: Iudicium) against Paulus and his accomplices.
While Julian's narrative account of the revolt is not disputed in attribution, the Iudicium is not universally agreed to be his work. In turn, the question over attribution of the latter raises the question of whether Julian himself participated in these events: that is, did he participate in Wamba's campaign to subdue the revolt and head with the king and his forces into Gaul? The Iudicium is certainly a contemporaneous account of events and of the judgement against Paulus and his faction, and gives the impression that its author was an active participant and eye-witness in the events. This is to be contrasted with Julian's narrative account, which does not give an eye-witness impression for the events narrated with the exception of apparently attending Wamba's coronation in Toledo. I personally incline to the view that the Iudicium was not written by Julian, and that Julian did not go into Gaul and become a witness to the events there.
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